Achievement Timeline:

What follows is a chronological list of some very influential scientific achievements.

35000 BC  The Origins of Counting and Writing

3000 BC    Astronomy Before History: Egyptians, Babylonians, Chinese

530 BC      An Early Scientist: Pythagorus

350 BC      Science as Differentiated from Philosophy: Aristotle

320 BC      The Origins of Botany: Theophrastus

300 BC      Euclidean Geometry: Euclid

260 BC      Revolutionary mathematics and mechanics: Archimedes

240 BC      Finding the Circumference of the Earth: Eratosthenes

134 BC      Making Accurate Astronomical Predictions: Hipparchus

140            An Earth-centered Universe: Ptolemy

876            The Mathematical Concept of Zero: Brahmagupta

1202          The Early Formulation of Algebra: Fibonacci (Leonardo of Pisa)

1435          The Renaissance: Artistic Proportion and Perspective: Alberti and Francesca

1543          A Sun Centered Universe: Nicolas Copernicus

1609          The Laws of Planetary Motion: Johannes Kepler

1610          Astronomical Imperfections: Galileo Galilei

1638          Acceleration due to Gravity is not Determined by Mass: Galileo Galilei

1687          Principia Mathematica; The Laws of Motion and Gravity: Isaac Newton

1765          Overturning the Theory of Spontaneous Generation: Lazzaro Spallanzani

1774          Combustion; The Chemical Processes Responsible for Fire: Joseph Priestly

1796          The Origin of the Solar System:  Pierre Simon de Laplace

1799          Electric Battery: Alessandro Volta

1800          The Wave Nature of Light: Thomas Young

1808          Atomic Theory: John Dalton

1820         Understanding Electromagnetism: Oersted, Ampere, Faraday

1839         Cellular Theory: Theodor Schwann

1842         The Doppler Effect: Christian Doppler

1847         The Laws Describing Thermodynamics: Rumford, Carnot, Joule, Clausius

1856         The Discovery of Neanderthal Man: William King, Hermann Schaaffhausen

1859         The Origin of Species: Charles Darwin

1861         Locating The Area of the Brain that Enables Speech: Pierre Paul Broca

1863         The Greenhouse Effect:  John Tyndall

1864         Understanding Electricity and Magnetism: James Clerk Maxwell

1865         The Laws of Inheritance:  Gregor Mendel

1878         Germ Theory: Louis Pasteur

1895          The Unconscious Mind: Sigmund Freud

1896          Radioactivity: Becquerel, Curie, Curie, Rutherford and Soddy

1897          The Electron: Joseph John Thomson

1900          Light is Composed of Discrete Parts or Quanta: Max Planck

1903          Chaos Theory: Jules Henri Poincare

1904          Conditioned Reflexes: Ivan Petrovitch Pavlov

1905          Special Relativity: Albert Einstein

1908          Brownian Motion: Brown, Boltzmann, Einstein, Perrin

1911          Superconductivity: Heike Kamerlingh Onnes

1912          Continental Drift: Alfred Wegener

1913          Model of the Atom: Ernest Rutherford and Niels Bohr

1914          Neurotransmitters: Dale, Barger, Loewi

1915          General Relativity:  Albert Einstein

1918          Neo-Darwinism: Fisher, Haldane, Wright

1920          Stellar Evolution: Eddington, Bethe, Weizsacker, Hertzsprung, Russell

1925          Wave Particle Duality:  Heisenberg, Schrodinger, and de Broglie   

1929           The Universe Is Expanding Rapidly: Edwin Hubble

1935           Animal Instinct: Karl von Frisch, Konrad Lorenz, Niko Tinbergen

1938           Behavioral Reinforcement and Operant Conditioning: Burrhus Skinner

1946           The Computer: Alan Turing, John von Neumann

1946           Photosynthesis: Melvin Calvin

1947           The First Transistor: Shockley, Brattain, Bardeen

1952           Understanding Nerves: Alan Hodgkin and Andrew Huxley

1953           The Double-Helical Structure of DNA: James Watson and Francis Crick

1953            The Origin of Cellular Life: Stanley Miller and Harold Urey

1961            Hayflick Limit: Leonard Hayflick

1965            The Cosmic Microwave Background: Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson

1967            Plate Tectonics: Drummond Matthews, Frederick Vine and Dan McKenzie

1969            The Apollo Mission: Armstrong, Aldrin and Collins

1969            Defining the Five Kingdoms of Life: Robert Whittaker

1974            The Characteristics of Black Holes: Steven Hawking

1983            A Neuroscientific Explanation for Memory: Eric Kandel

1984            Superstrings; An Effort to Unify Physics: Michael Boris and John Schwarz

1996            Dolly the Cloned Sheep: Ian Wilmut

2000            The Human Genome Sequence: HGSC and Celera Genomics